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p24页心理学专业外语第24页

Ethics of animal experimentation-the arguments for testing animals

THE REASONS FOR CONDUCTING ANIMAL RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY Ethical reasons-Many experiments that psychologists want to conduct are deemed unethical for human testing, but important enough to be justified for animal testing. Such experiments might involve controlled interbreeding, deprivation studies, brain surgery, or the trial testing of drugs.

Evolutionary

continuum-Some psychologists, such as the behaviorists, claimed that animal research was justified because humans have evolved from other animals and so the difference between them is only quantitative. Since humans are just more complex animals, it makes sense to study more simple organisms first, and then generalize to humans by ’scal ing up’ the results.

Convenience-Animals are ‘good subjects’,they do not try to understand the purpose of the experiment, are more controllable, and their faster breeding cycles allow tests to be conducted on the influence of heredity and environment on behavior. 动物实验的伦理问题-动物实验的争论

心理学上用动物进行研究的原因

伦理原因—心理学家想实施的很多实验用人类作被试被认为是不道德的。但相较于这些实验的重要性价值,用动物进行实验是合乎情理的。这些实验可能会涉及控制性杂交繁殖,剥夺实验,脑手术,或是药物的检测试验。

演化机制—一些心理学家,像行为主义者,认为动物实验是合乎情理的,因为人类是从其它动物进化而来的,因此,他们之间的不同之处仅在于数量上。由于人类只是更为复杂的动物,首先研究一些较为简单的生物,然后通过分析整理这些结果来对人类的某些特性进行归纳是很有意义的。

方便—动物是理想的实验材料,他们不会试着去理解实验的目的,更容易控制,并且它们较快的繁殖周期可以让实验在关于研究遗传与环境对行为的影响方面更易于操作。

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